Understanding Your Septic System

Learn about your septic system so you can prolong its life and avoid costly breakdowns.

A detailed illustration showing a septic system to help increase understanding.
Image: HouseLogic

Modern septic tanks are boxes made of concrete, polyethylene, or fiberglass that are buried underground. You can also find steel septic tanks; some were made from wood.

If you’re installing a septic system—or living with one — it pays to learn the basics of how it works. This will help you take simple steps to prolong its life, understand what you should do if something goes wrong, and evaluate your options if a home improvement project requires you to expand your system.

These one-house-at-a-time sewage treatment systems — used by more than one in five U.S. households — clean up wastewater just as well as city municipal systems. Septic systems are just better options for sparsely populated rural and spread-out suburban areas, where running sewer lines would be cost-prohibitive.

The typical life expectancy of a septic system is 15 to 40 years, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, but this estimate varies based on factors such as maintenance, usage, and the quality of the original installation.

How Does a Septic System Work?

A graphic that shows the path of septic systems and the different parts of a septic system.
Image: HouseLogic

All septic systems consist of two main parts: a tank where solids settle to the bottom and a drainfield (also known as a leachfield) where the water disperses. Specifics about the type of system you have should be included in papers you received when you bought your house.

If time has blurred the details, dig out those papers and read up. Your local health department or state environmental agency might also have backup records. If that fails, a plumber can help figure out what you have.

Types of Septic Systems

To start, let's look at conventional vs. alternative septic systems.

Standard Septic Systems

In a conventional septic system, gravity carries wastewater from the house into the septic tank and then to the drainfield. Water pools in the tank long enough for ingredients to separate.

The greases and oils that rise to the top as scum and the solids that sink to the bottom as sludge both get removed by a septic pumping company every few years and carted to an approved disposal site. The actual frequency of pumping depends on the tank size and household usage.

The relatively clear water in the middle flows out to the drainfield. This area must be kept free of trees and shrubs so their roots don’t damage it. The drainfield consists of perforated pipes or drain tiles buried in trenches or set on a gravel bed one to three feet below the surface (though some estimates suggest two to four feet, so check your local regulations). As water trickles out of the pipes, the soil and its microbes act as natural filters to clean the water.

Installing a new standard septic system can cost between $3,500 and $8,500, depending on your living location. But it’s not an option for every lot. Public health departments require a certain square footage of open land that's level with or downhill from the house for a standard-system permit. In some states, a state environmental agency handles such matters.

Alternative (Engineered) Septic Systems

Where the soil type, the property size, or proximity to a wetland prohibits a standard system, you’ll need an alternative system. That would be a system with an enhanced septic tank, drainfield, or both. These cost more to install than basic systems, but the prices vary widely, depending on your site, your local environmental codes, and the technology you need.

The following alternative systems help to purify the water more before it gets to the drainfield. That way, you can get by with a smaller drainfield — one in soil that doesn’t drain well — or a site that’s close to a lake or stream and therefore must meet stricter environmental standards.

Aerobic Septic Systems

An aerobic treatment unit installed new can cost $10,000 to 20,000. They mix air into the wastewater, which allows oxygen-loving bacteria to flourish. They break down solids much more quickly than the anaerobic bacteria in standard septic tanks, so cleaner water goes into the drainfield. Some units also disinfect the fluid with chlorine or ultraviolet light. That’s an advantage if you live near water, where you may face tighter environmental standards on what your system releases. An aerobic unit can serve as a substitute for a septic tank or work in concert with one.

Sand Filter

Installing a sand filter septic can cost $7,000 to 15,000 and works in conjunction with your tank or aerobic treatment unit. The filter consists of a large buried or above-ground box filled with sand. A pump tank releases the partially clarified water to the top of the sand in measured doses. Water then trickles through the sand before moving into the drainfield. A bottomless sand filter takes things a step further: It doubles as a drainfield alternative by allowing the fluids to pass into the ground underneath.

Drainfield Alternatives

The other main category of alternative treatment systems — which also can be used in conjunction with or instead of standard equipment, depending on your situation — focuses on the drainfield end of the process. These systems help water disperse safely even where soil conditions aren’t great or where there isn’t enough open space for a standard drainfield.

Mound System

A mound system can cost $10,000 to 20,000. A mound septic system is a pile of trucked-in sand and gravel with a drainfield buried inside. It’s used where the soil is thin or has too much clay, or where the water table is too high. Disguising a mound is a major landscaping challenge, especially since you can’t use trees or shrubs, which might have invasive roots.

Drip Irrigation

This type of alternative septic system can cost $6,500 to $15,000. It's a shallow drainfield where water trickles out over a wide area in measured doses from a pump chamber. Installers can snake the flexible piping around trees and shrubs, which makes it easier to fit the drainfield into an established landscape. Because the piping is just six inches to eight inches below ground, though, you might need to purify the water first, perhaps with an aerobic unit. You’ll also need a filter and regular maintenance to keep the system from clogging.

Jeanne Huber

Jeanne Huber is the author of 10 books about home improvement. She writes a weekly column about home care for the Washington Post.